Scientists from the U.S. University of North Carolina at chapel hill discovered a set of unique proteins that protect from rapid drying out of the animals (water bears) are microscopic invertebrates, related to extremophiles. Article with results of a study published in the journal Molecular Cell.
It is known that in the cells of these organisms is missing, the carbohydrate trehalose, which confers on yeast, roundworms and marine shrimp by the ability to survive dehydration. Scientists have suggested that water bears are using some other mechanism. In favor of this hypothesis is indicated by studies of Japanese biologists who showed that most genes of the animals unique to these invertebrates were not borrowed from other animals.
The researchers subjected water bears the impact of such stressors as dehydration and freezing. They analyzed which genes were activated under adverse conditions. This led to the discovery of DNA encoding proteins that belong to the connections with the internal that there takes place disordering (TDP), not have a rigid three-dimensional structure.
These substances allow the tihohodka to turn parts of his body in the vitreous substance that protects cells from destruction in the complete absence of water. To confirm this discovery, scientists have introduced these genes into the cells of bacteria and yeasts, after which they also became resistant to drying. Moreover, TDP could protect susceptible to dehydration enzymes inside the tube.
Researchers believe that a strong vitreous substance formed by proteins, coats the molecules and prevents their disintegration or fusion. These compounds, according to scientists, will help to create crops that can survive drought, as well as to develop new ways of storage of biological material.